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What Happened to the Berlin Wall in the Cold War

by | Mar 7, 2024 | World War Tour Berlin

Cold War, a term used to describe the political tension between the United States and the Soviet Union, had a significant impact on the world history. One of the most iconic symbols of this era was the Berlin Wall, a physical barrier that divided the city of Berlin for nearly three decades. In this article, we will explore the story behind the Berlin Wall and what eventually led to its downfall.

The Construction of the Berlin Wall

The construction of the Berlin Wall began on August 13, 1961. It was a result of escalating tensions between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. East Germany, controlled by the Soviet Union, built the wall to prevent its citizens from fleeing to West Berlin, which was under the influence of the Allies.

The wall was composed of a series of concrete barriers, guard towers, and barbed wire fences. It extended for about 96 miles, effectively cutting off West Berlin from East Germany. The construction was executed with great speed and precision, catching many people by surprise.

The Impact on the People

The erection of the Berlin Wall had a profound impact on the lives of countless individuals. Families and friends were suddenly separated, unable to communicate or see each other. Overnight, the city of Berlin became a physical representation of the divided world during the Cold War.

Attempts to cross the wall were met with severe consequences. Numerous individuals lost their lives trying to escape from East to West Berlin. The wall became not only a barrier between two parts of a city, but a symbol of oppression and the struggle for freedom.

Life Behind the Wall

Living conditions behind the Berlin Wall were starkly different in East and West Berlin. While West Berlin enjoyed economic prosperity and democratic freedoms, East Berlin was under the control of a totalitarian regime. Citizens living in East Berlin faced restricted personal freedom, limited access to consumer goods, and state-controlled media.

Despite the challenges, people in East Berlin persevered and found ways to cope with their situation. The sense of community and solidarity among the East Berliners grew stronger, and creative expressions of dissent emerged in the form of art, music, and underground culture.

The Fall of the Berlin Wall

The circumstances surrounding the fall of the Berlin Wall are often attributed to a combination of internal and external factors. Beginning in the late 1980s, the Soviet Union underwent a period of significant political change. New leadership emerged, bringing with it a more moderate approach towards international relations.

In 1989, a series of mass protests demanding political reforms swept through East Germany. The government’s inability to suppress these demonstrations and the growing pressure from both domestic and international sources became a catalyst for change. On November 9, 1989, East German authorities announced that citizens could cross the Berlin Wall without restriction.

Legacy of the Berlin Wall

The fall of the Berlin Wall marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. It symbolized the triumph of democracy over communism and represented the reunification of Germany. The removal of the wall led to significant transformations in both Germany and Europe as a whole.

Today, remnants of the Berlin Wall serve as a reminder of the past. The East Side Gallery, a section of the wall covered in murals created by artists from around the world, stands as a testament to the enduring spirit of freedom and unity.


The Berlin Wall stood as a physical and ideological barrier between two worlds during the Cold War. Its construction and eventual fall had a profound impact on the lives of millions of people. The Berlin Wall’s legacy serves as a reminder of the importance of freedom, unity, and the resilience of the human spirit.

What Happened to the Berlin Wall in the Cold War